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Prof. Nelly O. Flores

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Prof. Nelly O. Flores


          This study aimed to determine the parents’ self-concept, parenting styles and their relationship to the selfconcept of selected schoolchildren of Pembo Elementary School, Makati City.

           Specifically, the following questions were raised:

1. What is the level of self-concept of schoolchildren and their parents?

2. What are the parenting styles of the parents of the elementary schoolchildren of Pembo Elementary School as perceived by (a) Parents, and (b) schoolchildren?

3. Is there a significant relationship between the children’s self-concept and the parents’ self-concept?

4. Is there a significant relationship between the parents’ perceived parenting styles the children’s selfconcept?

5. What guidance intervention program can be developed for the parents and the schoolchildren?


         The researcher used the descriptive correlational method in this study, statistical treatment using the Mean X, and Pearson Product-Moment Coefficient of Correlation, or Pearson r. The instrument used to measure the variables self-concept, and parenting styles included:

a. Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale for children;

b. Tennessee Self-Concept Scale for the Parents, and

c. Parental Attitude Research Instrument (PARI) by Schaefer and Bell.

          The respondents of the study were the selected Grade V schoolchildren ten percent (10%) out of one thousand total population of Grade V Pupils in Pembo Elementary Schools, and their parents (mother and father).

          The purposive sampling technique was used considering (1) students whose parents are still alive and living together, and (2) students whose ages range from ten to twelve (10-12) years old.

          The total number of student-respondents were one hundred (100) and the parent-respondents were two hundred (200): one hundred (100) mothers and one hundred (100) fathers.


  1. With regard to self-concept, using Piers-Harris Self-Concept scale, the children obtained a Mean (X) score of 50.63 while the parents using the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale got a mean (X) score of 3.02 both were classified as moderate/average self-concept.
  2. In terms of parenting styles, the parents perceived their styles with the following mean (X):

(a) In Authoritarian-Control Attitude (ACA), the Mean (X) scores were 3.54 and 3.46 as perceived by the fathers and mothers respectively, with a weight mean (X) average of 3.50 for both parents, classified as Average. Fathers got high in subscale ascendancy with a mean (X) score of 3.99 but low in subscale with a mean (X) score 2.92; while Mothers got high in subscale irritability with a mean (X) score of 3.94 but low in preserved emotional ties with parents with a mean (X) score of 2.93.

(b) In Hostility-Rejection Attitude (HRA), mean (X0 Score of 2.82 and 2.68 were obtained as perceived by fathers and mothers, respectively with a weighted mean (X) average of 2.75. Both parents got high in subscale experiencing marital conflicts with mean (X) scores of 2.96 and 2.83 for fathers and mothers, respectively while low in subscale non-suppression of sex role with mean (X) scores of 2.56 and 2.57 as perceived by fathers and mothers, respectively.

(c) In Democratic-Equalitarian Attitude (DEA), fathers and mothers obtained mean (X) scores of 2.79 and 3.07, respectively, with a weighted mean (X) average of 2.93. Both parents got high on subscale encouraging verbalization with mean (X) scores of 3.03 and 3.42 for fathers and mothers, respectively, while they got low on subscale fostering and enduring resigned attitudes with a mean (X) scores of 2.57 and. 2.84 for fathers and mothers, respectively. In general, the rated high in Authoritarian-Control Attitude (ACA). As perceived by their children, the mean (X) values obtained on parenting styles are:

(d) In Authoritarian-Control Attitude (ACA), mean (X) score of 3.20 and 3.09 were obtained for fathers and mothers, respectively, with a weighted mean (X) average of 3.14. With regard to its subscale, the children perceived the fathers as ascendant with a mean (X) score of 4.05 while the mothers as fostering dependencies with a mean (X) score of 3.84. In contrast, the children perceived the fathers as low in fostering independence with a mean (X) score of 2.81 while they perceived the mothers as low in seclusion with a mean (X) score of 2.72.

(e) In Hostility-Rejection Attitude (HRA), mean scores of 2.62 and 2.21 were obtained for fathers and others, respectively, with a weighted mean (X) average of 2.41. The Fathers were perceived by children as high on subscale experiencing marital conflict with a mean (X) score of 2.83, but low in non-suppression of sex-role with a mean (X) score of 2.43. Mothers are perceived s high in subscale overt expression of aggression with a mean (X) score of 2.39 but low in subscale rejection of the homemaking role with a mean (X) score of 2.01.

(f) In Democratic-Equalitarian Attitude (DEA), the mean (X) scores are 2.89 and 3.48 for fathers and mothers, respectively with a weighted mean (X) average of 3.19. With regard to its subscale, the children perceived both of their parents as high in subscale encouraging verbalization with mean (X) scores of 3.02 and 3.57 for fathers and mothers, respectively; but low in subscale need for comradeship with mean (X) scores of 2.81 for fathers and mothers, respectively. For children in general, their parents’ parenting style is Democratic-Equalitarian Attitude (DEA).

     3. On the significant relationship between parents’ and children with the self-concept,, they obtained r-value of .54 and was interpreted as marked substantial relationship.

     4. When parenting styles were correlated with the self-concept of the schoolchildren, Democratic Equalitarian attitude (DEA) of parenting marked a significant relationship between the self-concept of children.

     5. Based on the findings of this investigation, the researcher proposed an intervention program in guidance on how to enhance the parents’ parenting style.


Based on the findings presented, the following conclusions were drawn:

1. Both parents and schoolchildren’s perception of their self-concept is moderately positive.

2. The parents perceived themselves as Authoritarian-Control Attitude (ACA) in their parenting style, while the schoolchildren perceived their parents as Democratic Equalitarian Attitude (DEA) in parenting style.

3. The self-concept of schoolchildren is significantly related to the self-concept of their parents. Parents with high self-concept tend to have children with high average self-concept.

4. The self-concept of the children is related to the parent’s style of parenting. Those with high self-concept are those with parents under Democratic Equalitarian Attitude (DEA), while those with poor self-concept have parents with the Authoritarian Control Attitude (ACA) and Hostility-Rejection Attitude (HRA).

5. An intervention program for parents on how to enhance their parenting is needed.


Based on the findings and the conclusions drawn, the researcher recommends the following:

For Parents and Academicians/Teachers

1. That the significant of the Democratic Method in rearing children be stressed in the light of its influence in the development of a high self-concept.

2. The creation and maintenance of an atmosphere conducive to the development of positive self-concept in the home and in school.

For School Administrators and Guidance Counselors

1. The proposed guidance intervention program be developed and trained to enhance and uplift the selfconcept of the elementary schoolchildren and effective parenting styles to parents.

For Further Studies/Follow-up Studies

Other researchers can undertake similar study using other variables to correlate with parenting styles such as:

1. The amount of time that the parent spends with their children.

2. Their religion, their socio-economic factors.

3. The academic performance of children as having effects on the self-concept of schoolchildren.



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