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Prof. Danilo A. Cullo

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Prof. Danilo A. Cullo


          The research study entitled “Development and Validation of Presentation Software for Calculus Lectures” aimed to develop and validate a set of teacher-based visual presentation materials intended for college instructors in the teaching of selected topics in calculus.

           Specifically, the objectives were;

  1. to select calculus concepts/topics and create visual presentations materials using PowerPoint presentation.
  2. to design a non-linear presentation format necessary to create an interactive environment for active learning. 
  3. to validate the visual presentations based on content objectives by subject matter specialist.


          In the development of the visual presentation material the researcher was guided by four major phases of material development: (1) Phase I as selection stage, (2) Phase II as designing stage, (3) Phase III as production stage and (4) Phase IV as validation stage of the visual presentation material.


          Results of the validation revealed the following:

  1. On the topic Pre-calculus, with 12 sub-topics, the subject matter specialists unanimously agreed that all visual presentation materials made were valid.
  2. For limits and continuity, with 9 sub-topics, specialists collectively approved that the visual presentation materials made were valid.
  3. For derivatives, having 5 sub-topics, specialists granted that the presentation materials were valid. 
  4. For integration, with 8 selected sub-topics, all specialists agreed that the visual presentation materials were valid.
  5. For the 9 sub-topics under application of derivatives, subject specialists generally agreed that presentation materials were valid.
  6. Similarly for topics under application of integration, specialists approved that all six (6)-presentation materials for each corresponding sub-topics were all valid.
  7. Lastly, for sequences and series, all agreed to be valid.


The researcher concluded the following:

  1. Selected topics in calculus (both differential and integral) can be presented in an interactive classroom not only algorithmically but also visually.
  2. The visual presentation materials can be designed in a non-linear sequence of slide presentations.
  3. The visual presentation materials made for 52 specific topics in calculus were all valid presentation materials.


On the basis of findings and conclusions, the following recommendations are formulated:

  1. College instructors can be encouraged to produce or create visual presentation materials to supplement their calculus teaching. 
  2. Students taking calculus subjects can use these presentation materials as their subject reference. 
  3. The presentation software should be subjected for evaluation in terms of the following aspects; software’s design format, presentation, audience appeal and suitability, practice /assessment, ease of use, user interface and media quality.
  4. Studies should be conducted in order to validate if the produced visual presentation materials have significantly affected teaching and learning process in calculus classrooms.
  5. Studies should be made in order to evaluate whether computer-based instruction or PowerPoint-Aided-Learning significantly differed from the traditional chalk and talk method.

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