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Mardei D. Emotin

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PRONUNCIATION DIFFICULTY OF KAMAYO

STUDENTS OF BAROBO

Mardie Dagasdas Emotin

OBJECTIVES

         The main purpose of this study was to design some activities for teaching English pronunciation readily available for the Kamayo learners at Barobo National High School, Barobo Surigao del Sur.

         Specifically, this study sought to answer the following questions:

  1. What are the common pronunciation difficulties among the Kamayo learners of Barobo National High School?
  2. What intervention activities can be designed to improve English pronunciation for the Kamayo learners?

METHODOLOGY

          This study is on the Development of Oral English Intervention Materials for the Kamayo Students at Barobo National High School. In the process, the following were involved:

Preliminary Activities

Needs Analysis

          The researcher together with the help of her co-teachers conducted a survey using the survey form on the Language History of Barobo National High School Students across the four year levels and identified the students whose first language is Kamayo. The researcher identified samples from the different year levels stratified proportional random sampling based on the number of students who were recognized as Kamayo speakers on the conducted survey.

          The researcher, with permission, adopted some ideas from some authors on the course of Construction of the pronunciation test to be conducted for her chosen respondents. The researcher modified the ideas of Carmelita Florez et. al. on “Materials for Diagnostic Reading”, in the book “Effective Speech Communication”, to suit the needs of the study.

          With the help of the other teachers of English conducted the oral test to the respondents, considering the criteria reflected in Appendix B.

1.00-1.49 – Excellent - generally accurate

1.50-2.49 – Satisfactory - some words mispronounced

2.50-3.39 – Fair - moderately mispronounced

3.50-4.00 – Needs Improvement - severely mispronounced

Uncultivated or illiterate

          The focus was on vowels, consonants and diphthongs sounds that were commonly mispronounced. The researcher analyzed and statistically treated the gathered data through the measures of central tendency.

          The following statistical techniques were used to compute the mean in the analysis and interpretation of data: To find the mean of each item, the formula as shown below was used.

Mean = (rate T1 + rate T2 + rate T3)/ 3

where: rate T1 - rating of teacher 1 on every item of the respondent.

          rate T2 - rating of teacher 2 on every item of the respondent.

rate T3 - rating of teacher 3 on every item of the respondent.

To find the percentage of every item towards the whole number of respondents, computation was by:

ratio = (number of tally)/(total possible of tally) * 100

Preparation of Materials

        The next step undertaken after the needs assessment was the preparation of some pronunciation exercises and activities. The focus of these materials was not on concept building but on pronunciation skills.

       The topics were carefully chosen to suit the needs of the students in the same manner topics are applicable to all year levels taking into consideration that learner across the four year levels encountered the same common pronunciation difficulties. The materials are based on the vowels, consonants, and diphthongs sounds, which were commonly mispronounced.

        The researcher prepared a blueprint for the materials. (See page 56-57), then presented the materials to the esearcher's adviser for further suggestions and comments.

        Three other language teachers in the school tried out the materials. After the try-out, she requested the teacher to fill an evaluation instrument that the researcher adapted from the instrument of Saranza (2002). Adaptations were done to fit the present study.

        The evaluation, which is not part of this study, was only done by the researcher as a feedback of her work and as a guide for future researchers.

FINDINGS

        The study revealed that difficulty on pronunciation skills among Kamayo learners is evident. It was further showed that the common difficulties were on some vowels, consonants and diphthongs sounds.

         The results on evaluation among the three teachers for students’ needs assessment on pronunciation skills  are considered relevant and valid by taking the evaluation mean of the three teachers.

         Each of the items in students’ needs assessment on pronunciation skills was evaluated by taking weight accordingly. Items in excellent and satisfactory are group under tolerable pronunciation skill and are treated as one while items in fair and needs improvement are grouped under difficult pronunciation skill and are also treated as one.

        The sounds that were considered in the pronunciation difficulty were the vowel sounds //, /ε/, /ey/, /u/, / /, the consonant sounds /o/, and /v/, and the diphthongs sounds, /a/, /au/ and / i/. These sounds were ranked as top ten of all the sounds presented.

CONCLUSIONS

The findings of the study revealed the following conclusions:

  1. The pronunciation difficulty among Kamayo learners is apparent; the sounds that were considered in the pronunciation difficulty were the vowel sounds //, /ε/, /ei/, /u/, / /, the consonant sounds /o/, and /v/, and the diphthong sound /au/, and / i/. 
  2. The intervention material is correspondingly made to address the common pronunciation difficulty of the Kamayo learners. The intervention materials included some principles and strategies in the teaching of pronunciation.
  3. The intervention materials demonstrated an effective and operate way to remedy the common pronunciation difficulty among Kamayo learners.

RECOMMENDATIONS

           Based on the findings and conclusions of the study, the following are hereby recommended:

  1. The language teachers of Barobo National High School (BNHS) are encouraged to use the intervention materials on the usual class language lessons and activities.
  2. The language teachers, not only in BNHS, are free to make use of the materials as part of the usual class activities and make necessary modifications based on the needs of the students.
  3. For further studies, the creation of a technologically advanced material embedded on the personal computer for a simple effortless way of alleviating the pronunciation difficulties of any individual around the province of Surigao del Sur in particular and of the entire Philippines in general is highly recommended. 
  4. As recommended by the teacher evaluators during the try out, time frame of each activity is too short.
  5. Future researchers are recommended to extend time to each activity depending on the need of each class.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Books

Adanza, E.G. Research Methods: Principle and Applications. Rex Bookstore, Manila Philippines. 1995

Alabastro, Teresita A. et al. SEDIP Bridges to Better Communication VI.J.C. Palabay Enterprises, Inc, Marikina City, Philippines.2000.

Anonuevo, Natividad R. et. Al. Speech and Drama. Marren Publishing House, Inc.,Quezon City, Philippines.2000.

Baudinains, Richard and Marjorie. Alternatives. Longman Group U.K Limited.1990.

Calvert, Donald R. Descriptive Phonetics. Thieme Inc.381 Park Avenue south New York.1996.

Coleman, John H. et.al. Reading for Meaning. J.B. Lippincott Company Philadelphia, New York.U.S.A.1962

Dorotheo, Paz R. Speech Improvement. Clavano Offset Press, Cebu City.1970.

Fernando, Jovita N. et. Al. English for Today. National Bookstore. Metro Manila, Philippines.1998.

Flores, Carmelita S. et. al. Effective Speech Communication. National Bookstore. Metro Manila, Philippines.1998.

Graham, Carolyn. Grammar Chants/ More Chants. Oxford University Press. U.S.A 1993.

Ladera, Helen P. et. al. Dimensions in Learning. Rex Bookstore, Inc. Quezon City, Philippines.1999.

_. Teacher’s Anthology. Macmillan/Mcgraw-Hilll School Publishing Company. New York.1993.

Reyes, lInda D. et. al. SEDIP English Arts III. JTW Corporation. Quezon City, Philippines.

Rogers, Natividad C. et. al. Spoken English. Phonex Press Inc. Quezon City, Philippines.1965.

Ross, Raymond S. Speech Communication Fundamentals and Practice Seventh Edition. Prentice-Hall, New Jersey. 1986.

Sevilla Consuelo G. et. al. Research Methods. Rex Bookstore. Manila, Philippines

Ur, Penny A. A Course in Language Teaching Practice and Theory, University Press, Cambridge.U.K.1995.

Warriner, John E. English Grammar And Composition. Harcourt Brace Jovanorich, Inc. New York. 1973

Dissertations, Theses and Special Projects

Babia, Emma S. Suggested Instructional Materials and Strategies for Developing the Oral Communication Skills in English of First Year College students at AMA Computer College, Q.C. A special Project. PNU Manila.1998.

Galope, Godolfredo. Suggested Exercises in Teaching English Pronunciation to Boholano learners. A Certificate Project. PNU Manila1996.

Pagilagan Alberto V. Suggested Strategies and Materials for Teaching Speech and oral Communication to College Sophomore at De La Salle University-Aguinaldo. A Special Project. PNU Manila.1995

Ponce Josefina M. Suggested Strategies in Teaching Oral Communication Skills to Grade Two pupil of Juan Luna Elementary School. A Special Project. PNU Manila.1999.

Rivera, Lucila B. Suggested activities in Teaching English Pronunciation to Ilongo Learners. A Special Project. PNU Manila1998.

Saranza, Rennie C. Development of Prototype Materials for English Class. Master Thesis. PNU Agusan. 2002

Villamor, Corsena G. Instructional Materials in Teaching Speech Sound in Pilipino to Hearing Impaired Learners. Master Thesis. Philippine Normal University Manila, 1981.

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