The study is descriptive-developmental
in nature which aimed to prepare and validate a prototype achievement test in Filipino I for First Year Students.
The study also attempted
2.1 Identify specific skills in Filipino I which will be included in the
2.2 Prepare Table of Specifications.
2.3 Construct items for each skill.
2.4 Try-out the validity of the test.
2.5 Analyze each item of the test.
2.6 Revise the test based on the weaknesses found during the try-out stage.
2.7 Compute the validity and reliability indices of the test.
2.8 Prepare the test manual.
Scope and Delimitation
The study is
only concerned on the preparation and validation of prototype achievement test in Filipino I for First Year Students of Philippine
Normal University Agusan Campus, SY 2002-2003.
Test measures the four (4) macro skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing. The validity and reliability of the test
prepared is determined with the help of Filipino I Professors in the University and selected Filipino I-first year students.
The study underwent four
stages, such as: planning, test construction, administration and evaluation stage.
Respondents of the Study
subjects involved in this study were the selected students from the eight (8) sections of first year enrolled during the first
and second semester of S.Y. 2002-2003. The subjects of the pilot testing stage were the twenty-six (26) first year students
from BEE I-8. The sixty-five (65) respondents for the first final run were selected from the seven (7) sections of first year.
There were sixty-two (62) respondents participated in the second final run.
The Filipino Instructors
of the University evaluated the appropriateness or suitability of items, clarity of directions and language used in the test.
of this study were chosen using simple random sampling method. Only one section from first year was utilized for the pilot
testing. The subjects for the try-outs were chosen using the fish bowl method. Each name of the subject was written in a small
piece of paper. Each was drawn until the desired samples were determined.
Data Gathering Procedure
Preparation of table of specifications
is important in the development of a test so that its effectiveness can be ensured (Harris, 1962).
In this study,
pre-survey was done to identify the skills to be tested. It was an aid for the development of test items.
items in this study were developed using the integrative and discrete point type of test which are both effective since they
can measure all language skills (Lado, 1961 and Oller, 1979).
After the item
inspection done by experts and Filipino Professors of Philippine Normal University-Agusan, the test was tried-out to twenty-six
(26) BEE I-8 students. The purpose of which was to determine the language suitability of the items and case in following directions
from the point of view of the examinees. The average length of time to finish the test was also determined. The test can be
finished in eighty minutes (80) time as known during the First Tryout. It was also found out that in multiple choice test,
there were only twenty-three (23) acceptable items, thirty-three (33) need revision and four (4) are not acceptable.
There were a total
of ninety-six (96) items included in the test. Twenty-three (23) of them were good items, thirty-three (33) revised items,
twenty-five (25) from cloze test and fifteen (15) points for essay test.
the test based on the result of the pilot testing, it was given to the selected BEE 1-1, 1-2, 1-3, 1-4, 1-5, 1-6, 1-7 students.
Its purpose was primarily for judging good and poor items quantitatively.
Based on the item analysis,
it was found out that there were forty-three (43) good items, seven (7) items need revision, while six (6) items were not
Final Run of the Test
This was done to find
out the effectiveness of the revisions done during the preceding try-outs. It was given to sixty-two (62) students selected
randomly from BEE 1-1, 1-2, 1-3, 1-4, 1-5, 1-6, and 1-7 on January 23, 2003. There were a total of eighty-three (83) items
included in the test.
Evaluating of the test
The concurrent validity
of the test was calculated using the Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient or Pearson r. The calculated concurrent
validity coefficient was 0.71 while the internal consistency reliability coefficient of the test using KR Formula 21 was 0.75.
Preparing the test manual
the results of the different tryout, the final form of the test was prepared. There were eighty-three (83) items included
in the its final form.
The test is based on
the learning skills found on the syllabus used in teaching Filipino I.
It was found out that
the students are not at eased of integrative type of test such as error recognition and basic cloze tests. It’s in this
part that they got very low.
In the test result, it
was noted that the students got low in speaking part than in listening, reading and writing. It can be attributed to the type
of test used in this part which are the error recognition and basic cloze tests.
There were no enough these
on language testing in Filipino, which can be used as basis on the present study.
The good items included in the final form can be tried out again with
new more items.
Involve more examinees in every phase of testing to ensure more reliable
The cloze test shall be changed if it is found out difficult in the
first tryout stage. Its index of difficulty and discrimination should be calculated too.
Specify the length of the paragraph the students would write in the
writing part of the test. Inter-rater reliability should also be calculated
The test can be given a departmentalized test after its validity and
reliability are further tried out.
The test can be given to other students in other university in or out
of Caraga Region for further validation.
Wide use of integrative mode of testing is encouraged so that the students
will be used to such type of tests.
The convergent and divergent validity of the test can be solved to show
further validity of the test in future studies.
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