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Prof. Fe S. Bermiso

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Faculty, Department of Education & Pedagogy



General Objective

         The study is descriptive-developmental in nature which aimed to prepare and validate a prototype achievement test in Filipino I for First Year Students.

Specific Objectives

         The study also attempted to:

2.1 Identify specific skills in Filipino I which will be included in the test.

2.2 Prepare Table of Specifications.

2.3 Construct items for each skill.

2.4 Try-out the validity of the test.

2.5 Analyze each item of the test.

2.6 Revise the test based on the weaknesses found during the try-out stage.

2.7 Compute the validity and reliability indices of the test.

2.8 Prepare the test manual.

Scope and Delimitation

          The study is only concerned on the preparation and validation of prototype achievement test in Filipino I for First Year Students of Philippine Normal University Agusan Campus, SY 2002-2003.

           The Achievement Test measures the four (4) macro skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing. The validity and reliability of the test prepared is determined with the help of Filipino I Professors in the University and selected Filipino I-first year students.


Research Design

         The study underwent four stages, such as: planning, test construction, administration and evaluation stage.

Respondents of the Study

          The subjects involved in this study were the selected students from the eight (8) sections of first year enrolled during the first and second semester of S.Y. 2002-2003. The subjects of the pilot testing stage were the twenty-six (26) first year students from BEE I-8. The sixty-five (65) respondents for the first final run were selected from the seven (7) sections of first year. There were sixty-two (62) respondents participated in the second final run.

          The Filipino Instructors of the University evaluated the appropriateness or suitability of items, clarity of directions and language used in the test.

Sampling Method 

          The subjects of this study were chosen using simple random sampling method. Only one section from first year was utilized for the pilot testing. The subjects for the try-outs were chosen using the fish bowl method. Each name of the subject was written in a small piece of paper. Each was drawn until the desired samples were determined.

Data Gathering Procedure

Preparation of table of specifications

           Careful planning is important in the development of a test so that its effectiveness can be ensured (Harris, 1962).

           In this study, pre-survey was done to identify the skills to be tested. It was an aid for the development of test items.

Item writing

           The test items in this study were developed using the integrative and discrete point type of test which are both effective since they can measure all language skills (Lado, 1961 and Oller, 1979).

First Tryout

          After the item inspection done by experts and Filipino Professors of Philippine Normal University-Agusan, the test was tried-out to twenty-six (26) BEE I-8 students. The purpose of which was to determine the language suitability of the items and case in following directions from the point of view of the examinees. The average length of time to finish the test was also determined. The test can be finished in eighty minutes (80) time as known during the First Tryout. It was also found out that in multiple choice test, there were only twenty-three (23) acceptable items, thirty-three (33) need revision and four (4) are not acceptable.

Second Tryout

          There were a total of ninety-six (96) items included in the test. Twenty-three (23) of them were good items, thirty-three (33) revised items, twenty-five (25) from cloze test and fifteen (15) points for essay test.

          After revising the test based on the result of the pilot testing, it was given to the selected BEE 1-1, 1-2, 1-3, 1-4, 1-5, 1-6, 1-7 students. Its purpose was primarily for judging good and poor items quantitatively.

         Based on the item analysis, it was found out that there were forty-three (43) good items, seven (7) items need revision, while six (6) items were not acceptable.

Final Run of the Test

         This was done to find out the effectiveness of the revisions done during the preceding try-outs. It was given to sixty-two (62) students selected randomly from BEE 1-1, 1-2, 1-3, 1-4, 1-5, 1-6, and 1-7 on January 23, 2003. There were a total of eighty-three (83) items included in the test.

Evaluating of the test

         The concurrent validity of the test was calculated using the Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient or Pearson r. The calculated concurrent validity coefficient was 0.71 while the internal consistency reliability coefficient of the test using KR Formula 21 was 0.75.

Preparing the test manual

           Based on the results of the different tryout, the final form of the test was prepared. There were eighty-three (83) items included in the its final form.


         The test is based on the learning skills found on the syllabus used in teaching Filipino I.

         It was found out that the students are not at eased of integrative type of test such as error recognition and basic cloze tests. It’s in this part that they got very low.

         In the test result, it was noted that the students got low in speaking part than in listening, reading and writing. It can be attributed to the type of test used in this part which are the error recognition and basic cloze tests.

        There were no enough these on language testing in Filipino, which can be used as basis on the present study.


    1. The good items included in the final form can be tried out again with new more items.
    2. Involve more examinees in every phase of testing to ensure more reliable results.
    3. The cloze test shall be changed if it is found out difficult in the first tryout stage. Its index of difficulty and discrimination should be calculated too.
    4. Specify the length of the paragraph the students would write in the writing part of the test. Inter-rater reliability should also be calculated
    5. The test can be given a departmentalized test after its validity and reliability are further tried out.
    6. The test can be given to other students in other university in or out of Caraga Region for further validation.
    7. Wide use of integrative mode of testing is encouraged so that the students will be used to such type of tests.
    8. The convergent and divergent validity of the test can be solved to show further validity of the test in future studies.


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